Total greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutant in Slovakia.

Trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollutant have been balanced since 1990. More information on emission trends in Slovakia.

Total emissions

Overall Trends

The greenhouse gas emission inventory (CO2, CH4, N2O  and F-gases) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an annual balance of the amount of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the Slovak Republic. The inventory is prepared annually by 15 April, year-2, since 1990 (base year for the Slovak Republic). Emissions are calculated by sectors – energy (including transport), industrial processes, agriculture, LULUCF (land use, land use change and forestry) and waste. GHG emissions inventories are publicly available and can be found at here as well as at the UNFCCC website

Emissions of all greenhouse gases balanced in the Slovak Republic can be expressed in CO2 emission equivalents (CO2 eq.) after recalculation with the global warming potential (GWP). Total greenhouse gas emissions in equivalents, but also by individual gases, have decreased significantly since 1990. The total decrease in 2020 was at the level of 49.6%, when they decreased to 37,003 Gg CO2 eq. The reason for this decline is the strict implemented national legislation, a change in the industry structure, as well as a change in consumer behaviour.

The largest share of carbon dioxide emissions comes from the energy sector (76%), 23% of CO2 emissions come from the industrial processes sector; 47% of methane emissions are accounted for the waste sector and 32% for agriculture sector. Other methane emissions come from the energy sector are fugitive emissions from mines, natural gas and oil transportation. More than 74% of nitrous oxide emissions come from agricultural production, N2O emissions are produced in industry (nitric acid production), energy and waste (wastewater treatment). Fluorinated gases (HFC, PFC and SF6) are industrial gases and come from construction, electrical engineering and food production.

Emission inventory of pollutants is an annual balance of the amount of emissions of individual pollutants that were released into the air from all stationary, fugitive and mobile sources in the Slovak Republic. Emission data are reported in mass units for the period since 1990, the latest data are two years old - e.g. the 2022 inventory covers the period 1990 - 2020. The reporting deadline for emission inventories is 15. February. Report on emission inventories accompanied the balance has to be submitted by 15. March. The structure of provided data follows the standardized international nomenclature for reporting ("NFR - Nomenclature for Reporting"). It currently defines 127 different categories allocated the reported emissions. The data cover anthropogenic activities divided into individual groups of activities.

The nomenclature has a multilevel so-called a tree structure based on possibilities to group individual categories into larger units, e.g. into sectors for evaluation, comparison and survey statistics.

One of the most important sources of emissions data in the preparation of the final inventory is the National Emissions Information System (NEIS) database. NEIS provides detailed data from air pollution source operators. Direct emission data from sources are processed according to reporting requirements. An important source of input data is the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. The input statistics are updated annually and, if necessary, revised back to the base year 1990 in accordance with the principles mentioned above. The international methodological manual EMEP / EEA 2019 or national methodologies are used to calculate emissions.

The main source of NOx emissions is the road transport, which has a very stable, slowly declining trend. Emissions of NMVOCs, CO and solid particulars are emitted mainly when households are heated with solid fuels, especially wood. SOx emission trends are constantly decreasing until 2014. Since 1990, SOx emissions have fallen sharply due to strict air protection legislation. In 2015, a significant increase in emissions was recorded. These emissions are emitted by the Slovenské elektrárne (SE) – electricity power plant. According to NEIS records, the power plant facility ENO 0023 B - blocks 3 and 4 burned double amount of brown coal as in the previous year 2014. Due to the extensive reconstruction of units B1 and B2 of ENO (from the SE report), the obsolete blocks K1, K2 were used, which are not equipped separation technologies. The SE apparently used a special exemption guilt until 2015 (max. 20,000 operating hours from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2015) for not applying any emission limits and emission reduction technology. Subsequently, in 2016, emissions fell significantly.

The overall trend in the inventory of ammonia emissions (NH3) has a steadily declining trend since 1990 until 2011. The following years show a slight increase and the main driving force of this change was the increase in the number of animals and the application of inorganic N-fertilizers to soils. Animal manure applied to soils is a key category, which in 2020 released more than 68% of all ammonia in the Slovak Republic. This category is the main NH3 polluter in the whole time series.

Emissions of heavy metals and POPs generally have a declining trend, which is related to the introduction of emission limits and the subsequent installation of separation technics. The main contributors are the energy industry and the production of metals.

Emissions by fuels