Total greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutant in Slovakia.

Trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollutant have been balanced since 1990. More information on emission trends in Slovakia.

Total emissions

Expressed in GWP from IPCC AR5 as of 01/15/2024

Overall Trends

The greenhouse gas emission inventory (CO2, CH4, N2O and F-gases) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an annual balance of the amount of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the Slovak Republic. The inventory is prepared annually by 15 April, year-2, since 1990 (base year for the Slovak Republic). Emissions are calculated by sectors – energy (including transport), industrial processes, agriculture, LULUCF (land use, land use change and forestry) and waste. GHG emissions inventories are publicly available and can be found at here as well as at the UNFCCC. Emissions of all greenhouse gases balanced in the Slovak Republic can be expressed in CO2 emission equivalents (CO2 eq.) after recalculation with the global warming potential (GWP).

The Slovak Republic is providing information on the anthropogenic GHG emissions and sinks as it is included in the CRF tables 1990 – 2022 generated by the CRF Reporter software version 6.0.10 by the xml file as a part of annual GHG inventory submitted on January 15, 2024. Summary emissions data in GWP according to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) are presented in the National Inventory Report 2024 .

The total national emissions of GHGs in the inventory year 2022 were estimated to be 37 117.27 Gg of CO2 eq. excluding LULUCF excluding indirect emissions and the net GHG emissions were 29 891.53 Gg of CO2 eq. including LULUCF sector and excluding indirect emissions. National GHG emissions inventory including indirect emissions were 37 156.77 Gg of CO2 eq. without LULUCF and 29 931.03 Gg of CO2 eq. with LULUCF. The aggregated emissions of GHGs decreased significantly in year 2022 excluding LULUCF, compared to the year 2021. It can be considered, that overall trend of the GHG emissions in Slovakia is driven by the energy and IPPU sectors and economic growth in those areas. Emissions decrease compared to the base year 1990 with more than 49% (53.6% excluding LULUCF). When the LULUCF sector is included to the net aggregated emissions in 2022, emissions decreased by more than 4 Tg of CO2 eq. compared to previous year 2021. GHG emissions decreased mostly in energy and IPPU sectors, both in EU ETS and ESD parts across all categories, mostly in manufacturing industry, mineral production, chemical industry and metal industry. More information can be find in the Energy and IPPU sectoral chapters of the SVK NIR 2024. The removals without LULUCF in 2022 are slightly higher than in 2021 and the third year higher than 7 Tg.

The major changes in the national inventory in the 2024 submission are caused by recalculations connected with the implementation of the IPCC 2019 Refinement to the IPCC 2006 Guidelines, mostly in the fugitive emissions from fuels (1.B), agriculture (3) and waste (5). Several general improvements in transparency of reporting, allocation of emissions and accuracy were made in this submission reflecting the IPCC 2019 Refinement.

The latest available GHG emission projections proposed emissions stabilisation as an evidence of the successful implementation of the policies and measures and their effect on the improvement in energy intensity and industrial production efficiency. During the whole period 1991 – 2022, the total greenhouse gas emissions in the Slovak Republic did not exceed the level of 1990.

The major share of the aggregated emissions excluding LULUCF in 2022 goes to the CO2 emissions comprising about 85% of the total. The share of CH4 emissions is about 10%, N2O emissions about 3.5%, and F-gases emissions about 1.5% of the total, respectively. The share of gases is almost comparable with the 1990 base year structure.

Total CO2 emissions excluding LULUCF and indirect emissions in 2022 were estimated at 31 550.24 Gg with 49% reduction against base year. Emissions of CO2 have decreased in comparison with the previous inventory year 2021 by 10% due to their decrease in energy – manufactured industry; and IPPU sectors – metal industry.

Total CH4 emissions excluding LULUCF in 2022 were estimated at 3 775.83 Gg of CO2 eq. (134.14 Gg CH4) with decrease by 55% in comparison with the base year. Emissions of CH4 have decline compared to the previous inventory year 2021 by 4%.

Total N2O emissions excluding LULUCF and indirect emissions in 2022 were estimated at 1 309.05 Gg of CO2 eq. (4.94 Gg N2O) with the reduction by 60.5% compared to the base year. Emissions of N2O have slightly decreased compared to the previous inventory year 2021 due to decrease of emissions in agriculture.

Total emissions of F-gases in 2022 were estimated at 502.15 Gg with the increase (HFCs) by more than 1.6 times if compared to the base year 1990. Decreasing trend is visible in comparison with the previous year and the fluctuation in HFCs emissions is occurring in current inventory submission since the year 2014. The emissions of HFCs recorded decrease in comparison with the previous year (2021) by 29%. The emissions of F-gases were approximately constant since 2010 because of the almost complete replacement of HDFCs gases. Another reason of the change in trend is the use of HFC-32 and HFC-134a in mobile air conditioners (ACs). Coolant R134a showed continuing increasing trend mainly because of rising uses of cars with ACs. This trend stopped in 2010. It was caused by smaller purchases of cars in Slovakia since 2010, which resulted in a smaller bank of HFC-134a in Slovakia.

Total actual HFCs emissions reported in the category 2.F Product uses as substitutes for ODS were 480.86 Gg of CO2 eq. in 2022 and they decreased by 29% compared to the previous year. The decrease is due the lower disposal emissions. This decreasing trend is visible for the first time in this submission.

The actual emissions of PFCs in the category 2.F were 5.91 Gg of CO2 eq. in 2022 (aluminium production). Emissions of SF6 were 15.38 Gg CO2 eq. in 2022. No NF3 emissions are occurring in Slovakia. Emissions of HFCs, PFCs and SF6 in Slovakia are only from consumption of the F-gases in industry (mostly aluminium production, construction, building and services sectors). Slovakia does not produce any of the F-gases.

The energy sector represents the major share of aggregated emissions in 2022 and covers about 25 674.26 Gg of CO2 eq. (69% from total), the industrial processes sector covers 7 536.24 Gg of CO2 eq. (20%), the agriculture sector about 1 976.86 Gg of CO2 eq. (5%) and the waste sector 1 929.92 Gg of CO2 eq. (5%). The sinks from LULUCF sector were estimated at the level of -7 225.74 Gg of CO2 eq. in 2022, which means that removals are almost the same compared to the previous year.

The GHG emissions from energy sector based on sectoral approach data in 2022 were estimated to be 24 987.10 Gg of CO2 eq., including the transport emissions (7 778.85 Gg of CO2 eq.). This mean decrease by about 54% when compared to the base year and decrease by 8% in comparison with the previous year 2021.

Emissions in the road transportation have increased by 3.4% compared to the year 2021 and increased by 14% in comparison with the base year.

The total emissions from industrial processes sector in 2022 were estimated to be 7 536.24 Gg of CO2 eq. with the lower 8% decrease compared to the previous year and decrease by 20% compared to 1990. Decrease mostly occurred in the metal and chemical industry.

The emissions from agriculture sector were estimated to be 1 976.86 Gg of CO2 eq. It is decrease by 65.7% in comparison with the base year and slight decrease in comparison to the previous year level. The agriculture sector shows the highest (comparable with the energy sector) decrease in emissions since the base year 1990, namely due to significant decrease in cattle numbers and synthetic fertilizers use. Recalculations were made in this submission reflecting the extent implementation of the IPCC 2019 Refinement and new national data.

The emissions from waste sector were estimated to be 1 929.92 Gg of CO2 eq. Emissions are almost at the same level as in previous years (decrease by 1%) and the time series do not show significant fluctuations in trend. Compared to the base year, the emissions increased by more than 38%, due to increasing methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites. The emissions from incineration with energy use in municipal and industrial waste were included into energy sector, in several categories depending on the industry source (municipal waste in 1.A.1a – Energy Industries, other fuels). The revaluation of oxidation factor in the SWDS, methodological changes in SWDS, composting, waste incineration connected with the methodological change and larger changes in wastewater treatment emissions were the driving force for the trend changes in the last submissions.

Indirect emissions from IPPU sector (solvents) were estimated in this submission. Time series was reconstructed with the base year on the level 87.77 Gg of CO2 and the latest inventory year on the level 39.50 Gg of the CO2. Total GHG emissions without LULUCF and with indirect CO2 emissions were 37 156.77 Gg of CO2 eq. and with LULUCF and with indirect CO2 were 39 931.03 Gg of CO2 eq.

Overall Trends in Pollutants

The emission inventory of pollutants is an annual balance of the amount of emissions of individual pollutants that were released into the air from all stationary, surface and mobile sources in the territory of the Slovak Republic. Emission data are reported in mass units for the period since 1990, with the last data being from two years ago. The accompanying report to the emission inventories must be submitted by 15. 3. X-2. The structure of the provided data copies the standardized international nomenclature for reporting (English "NFR - Nomenclature For Reporting"). It currently defines 127 different categories within which emissions are reported. The data cover anthropogenic activities divided into individual groups of activities.

The nomenclature has a multi-level so-called tree structure, on the basis of which individual categories can be grouped into larger units, e.g. sectors for the purposes of evaluation, comparison and summary statistics.

One of the most important sources of data on emissions in preparing the final inventory is the National Emissions Information System (NEIS) database. NEIS provides detailed data from operators of air pollution sources. Direct emission data from sources are processed according to reporting requirements. An important source of input data is the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Input statistical data are updated annually and, if necessary, revised back to the base year 1990 in accordance with the principles mentioned above. The international methodology manual EMEP/EEA or national methodologies are used to calculate emissions.

The main source of NOx emissions is road transport, which has a stable, only slowly decreasing trend. Emissions of NMVOC, CO and solid substances are mainly emitted when heating households with solid fuels, especially wood. SOx emission trends are steadily decreasing until 2014. Since 1990, SOx emissions have seen a significant decrease due to strict air protection legislation. In 2015, a substantial increase in emissions was recorded. These emissions come from the Slovak Power Plant (SE). According to NEIS records, the power plant - ENO 0023 B-block 3 and 4 burned double the amount of lignite than in the previous year 2014. Due to the extensive reconstruction of blocks B1 B2 ENO (from the SE report), ENO and K1, K2, which are not equipped, were used separation technologies. SE apparently used the last year of the special exemption (max. 20,000 hours of operation from 1/1/2008 to 12/31/2015) for not applying any emission limits and emission reduction technology. Subsequently, emissions fell significantly in 2016.

The overall trend of the inventory of ammonia (NH3) emissions since 1990 has a steady downward trend until 2011. The following years until 2015 show a slight increase, and the main driving force behind this change was the increase in the number of animals and the application of inorganic fertilizers to soils. Animal and inorganic fertilizers applied to soils are the key categories that released more than 60% of all ammonia. Both categories belong to the main polluters in the entire time series.

Emissions of heavy metals and POPs have a generally decreasing trend, which is related to the introduction of emission limits and the subsequent installation of separation devices. The main contributors include the energy industry and metal production.